2021, Volume 7
2020, Volume 6
2019, Volume 5
2018, Volume 4
2017, Volume 3
2016, Volume 2
2015, Volume 1
Volume 3 , Issue 1 , June 2017 , Pages: 27 - 33
Cr-Gd co-doped TiO2 Nanoribbons as Photoanode in Making Dye Sensitized Solar Cell
Ghazi M. Abed, Ministry of Science and Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
Abdulkareem M. A. Alsammarraie, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Basim I. Al-Abdaly, Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
Received: Apr. 7, 2017;       Accepted: Apr. 26, 2017;       Published: May 27, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.nsnm.20170301.15        View        Downloads  
Pure and (Cr3+-Gd3+) co-doped TiO2 nanoribbons (TiNRs) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method at 200°C with stirring at 400 rpm. The structures and morphology of the prepared product were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy and Scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the Cr3+ and Gd3+ metals ions dopant were incorporated into interstitial position of the TiO2 lattice nanoribbons with diameter of (30-100) nm and length of few micrometers. The calculated optical band gap for undoped and co-doped of the TiNRs were 3.12 eV and 3.01, respectively. These modified properties of the TiNRs showed an important effect on the conversion efficiency of the assembled dye sensitized solar cells, where the efficiency of the undoped and co-doped TiNRs were 1.71 and 1.99, respectively.
Doped TiO2, DSSC, Nanoribbons
To cite this article
Ghazi M. Abed, Abdulkareem M. A. Alsammarraie, Basim I. Al-Abdaly, Cr-Gd co-doped TiO2 Nanoribbons as Photoanode in Making Dye Sensitized Solar Cell, Nanoscience and Nanometrology. Vol. 3, No. 1, 2017, pp. 27-33. doi: 10.11648/j.nsnm.20170301.15
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
[ 1 ]
Chen, X. and Mao, S. S., 2007. Titanium dioxide nanomaterials: synthesis, properties, modifications, and applications, Chem. Rev, vol. 107, no. 7, pp. 2891–2959.
[ 2 ]
Rutar, M., Rozman, N., Pregelj, M., Bittencourt, C., Korošec, R. C., Škapin, A. S., Mrzel, A., Škapin, S. D. and Umek, P., 2015. Transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons and the influence of the transformation strategies on the photocatalytic performance, Beilstein J. Nanotechnol., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 831–844.
[ 3 ]
Jin Z. L. and Lu, G.-X., 2005. Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution over Pt x-/TiO2-y B y Catalysts in a Ternary System of K+, Mg2+/B4O72-/H2O,” Energy & fuels, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1126–1132.
[ 4 ]
Zhu, H., Zheng, Z., Gao, X., Huang, Y., Yan, Z., Zou, J., Yin, H., Zou, Q., Kable, S. H., Zhao, J. and others, 2006. Structural Evolution in a Hydrothermal Reaction between Nb2O5 and NaOH Solution: From Nb2O5 Grains to Microporous Na2Nb2O6.2/3H2O Fibers and NaNbO3 Cubes, J. Am. Chem. Soc., vol. 128, no. 7, pp. 2373–2384.
[ 5 ]
Demeestere, K., Dewulf, J., Ohno, T., Salgado, P. H. and H. Langenhove, V., 2005. Visible light mediated photocatalytic degradation of gaseous trichloroethylene and dimethyl sulfide on modified titanium dioxide, Appl. Catal. B Environ., vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 140–149.
[ 6 ]
Xie, Y., and Yuan, C., 2004. Rare earth ion modified TiO2 sols for photocatalysis application under visible light excitation, RARE Met. Ed., vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 20–26.
[ 7 ]
Regan, O., Gratzel, M., (1991) A low-cost, high-efficiency solar cell based on dye-sensitized colloidal TiO2 films. Nature 353:737–739).
[ 8 ]
Nadzirah, S., Foo, K. L. and Hashim, U., 2015. Morphological reaction on the different stabilizers of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Int J Electrochem Sci, 10, pp. 5498-5512.
[ 9 ]
Sekino, T., 2010. Synthesis and applications of titanium oxide nanotubes. In Inorganic and Metallic Nanotubular Materials (pp. 17-32). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
[ 10 ]
Zeng, Y. Z., Liu, Y. C., Lu, Y. F. and Chung, J. C., 2014. Study on the Preparation of Nanosized Titanium Dioxide with Tubular Structure by Hydrothermal Method and Their Photocatalytic Activity. International Journal of Chemical Engineering and Applications, 5 (3), p. 234.
[ 11 ]
Chimupala, Y., Hyett, G., Simpson, R. and Brydson, R., 2014. Synthesis and characterization of a mixed phase of anatase TiO2 and TiO2 (B) by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) for high photocatalytic activity. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 522, No. 1, p. 012074). IOP Publishing.
[ 12 ]
Police, A. K. R., Pulagurla, V. L. R., Vutukuri, M. S., Basavaraju, S., Valluri Durga, K. and Machiraju, S., 2010. Photocatalytic degradation of isoproturon pesticide on C, N and S doped TiO2. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2010.
[ 13 ]
Greene, L. E., Yuhas, B. D., Law, M., Zitoun, D. and Yang, P., 2006. Solution-grown zinc oxide nanowires. Inorganic chemistry, 45 (19), pp. 7535-7543.
[ 14 ]
Mikami, M., Nakamura, S., Kitao, O. and Arakawa, H., 2002. Lattice dynamics and dielectric properties of TiO2 anatase: a first-principles study. Physical Review B, 66 (15), p. 155213.
[ 15 ]
Ribbens, S., Meynen, V., Van Tendeloo, G., Ke, X., Mertens, M., Maes, B. U. W., Cool, P. and Vansant, E. F., 2008. Development of photocatalytic efficient Ti-based nanotubes and nanoribbons by conventional and microwave assisted synthesis strategies. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 114 (1), pp. 401-409.
[ 16 ]
Choi, H. C., Jung, Y. M. and Kim, S. B., 2004. Characterization of Raman spectra of size-selected TiO2 nanoparticles by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy. Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society, 25 (3), pp. 426-428.
[ 17 ]
Hardcastle, F. D., 2011. Raman spectroscopy of titania (TiO2) nanotubular water-splitting catalysts. Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science, 65 (1), pp. 43-48.
[ 18 ]
Sauvet, A. L., Baliteau, S., Lopez, C. and Fabry, P., 2004. Synthesis and characterization of sodium titanates Na2Ti3O7 and Na2Ti6O13. Journal of Solid State Chemistry, 177 (12), pp. 4508-4515.
[ 19 ]
Viana, B. C., Ferreira, O. P., Souza Filho, A. G., Hidalgo, A. A., Mendes Filho, J. and Alves, O. L., 2011. Highlighting the mechanisms of the titanate nanotubes to titanate nanoribbons transformation. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 13 (8), pp. 3259-3265.
[ 20 ]
Peng, H., Lai, K., Kong, D., Meister, S., Chen, Y., Qi, X. L., Zhang, S. C., Shen, Z. X. and Cui, Y., 2010. Aharonov-Bohm interference in topological insulator nanoribbons. Nature materials, 9 (3), pp. 225-229.
[ 21 ]
Qamar, M., Yoon, C. R., Oh, H. J., Lee, N. H., Park, K., Kim, D. H., Lee, K. S., Lee, W. J. and Kim, S. J., 2008. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of nanotubes obtained from titanium dioxide. Catalysis Today, 131 (1), pp. 3-14.
[ 22 ]
Zhao, Y., Li, C., Liu, X., Gu, F., Jiang, H., Shao, W., Zhang, L. and He, Y., 2007. Synthesis and optical properties of TiO2 nanoparticles. Materials Letters, 61 (1), pp. 79-83.
[ 23 ]
Santara, B., Giri, P. K., Imakita, K. and Fujii, M., 2013. Evidence of oxygen vacancy induced room temperature ferromagnetism in solvothermally synthesized undoped TiO2 nanoribbons. Nanoscale, 5 (12), pp. 5476-5488.
[ 24 ]
Loan, T. T. and Long, N. N., 2016. Optical Properties of Anatase and Rutile TiO2: Cr3+ Powders. VNU Journal of Science: Mathematics-Physics, 30 (2).
[ 25 ]
Ko, K. H., Lee, Y. C. and Jung, Y. J., 2005. Enhanced efficiency of dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells (DSSC) by doping of metal ions. Journal of colloid and interface science, 283 (2), pp. 482-487.
[ 26 ]
Zhang, J. C., Han, Z. Y., Li, Q. Y., Yang, X. Y., Yu, Y. and Cao, W. L., 2011. N, S-doped TiO2 anode effect on performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, 72 (11), pp. 1239-1244.
[ 27 ]
Berglund, S. P., Hoang, S., Minter, R. L., Fullon, R. R. and Mullins, C. B., 2013. Investigation of 35 Elements as Single Metal Oxides, Mixed Metal Oxides, or Dopants for Titanium Dioxide for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 117 (48), pp. 25248-25258.
[ 28 ]
Xie, Y., Huang, N., You, S., Liu, Y., Sebo, B., Liang, L., Fang, X., Liu, W., Guo, S. and Zhao, X. Z., 2013. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by trace amount Cr-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes. Journal of Power Sources, 224, pp. 168-173.
[ 29 ]
Lamberti, A., Sacco, A., Bianco, S., Manfredi, D., Cappelluti, F., Hernandez, S., Quaglio, M. and Pirri, C. F., 2013. Charge transport improvement employing TiO2 nanotube arrays as front-side illuminated dye-sensitized solar cell photoanodes. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 15 (7), pp. 2596-2602.
Browse journals by subject